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The secret world of female Freemasons - BBC News

Before exploring this strange connection further we need to understand the part played by the Moors in the transmission of knowledge to Europe.

Moor is the classical name in Europe of the Muslim people of North Africa. In Spain, where Muslims ruled for over five hundred years, Arabs are still called Moros.

The Moors provided the vital link between ancient and modern civilisation. The light of knowledge which illuminated the Moorish lands of Spain and Sicily was instrumental in dispelling the gloom of ignorance that enveloped mediaeval Europe.

Spain and not Italy, was the cradle of the rebirth of Europe. After sinking lower and lower in barbarism, it had reached the darkest depths of ignorance and degradation when the cities of the Saracenic world Baghdad, Cairo, Cordova, Toledo, were growing centres of civilisation and intellectual activity.

It was there that the new life arose which was to grow into a new phase of human evolution. From the time when the influence of their culture made itself felt, began the stirring of a new life.

For nearly eight centuries under her Muslim rulers Spain set to all Europe a shining example of a civilized and enlightened state.

Art, literature and science prospered as they then prospered nowhere else in Europe. Students flocked from France and Germany and England to drink from the fountains of learning which flowed only in the cities of the Moors.

The surgeons and doctors of Andalusia were in the vanguard of science; women were encouraged to devote themselves to serious study, and a lady doctor was not unknown among the people of Cordova.

Springett says:. The plain fact that much of what we now look upon almost entirely as Freemasonry has been practised as part and parcel of the religions of the Middle East for many thousands of years, lies open for anyone who cares to stop and read, instead of running by.

But it is frequently and scornfully rejected by the average Masonic student…2. In time European Christians conquered Muslim territories and the great debt Western civilisation owed to the Moors was quickly forgotten.

Western historians conveniently ignored the immense contribution of the brilliant and energetic Moorish civilisation in delivering Europe from mediaeval barbarism.

We can only conclude this is a result of the pride and presumption of Westerners, which prevent them from recognising the truth or importance of their debts to the East.

The founders of the American republic, as high-degree Freemasons, were aware of the importance of Moorish wisdom and culture to the birth of Western civilisation.

Some researchers believe this flag consisted of a red background with a green five-pointed star in the centre of it. The star or pentagram, which the Moors called the Seal of Sulaiyman and coloured green to honour Islam, also figures prominently in Masonic art and architecture.

The layout of the city of Washington D. When Freemasons travelling in the Moorish lands encountered Sufis, the mystics of Islam, they soon recognised a common bond.

Papus also viewed Freemasonry as a diabolical perversion of the ancient secret tradition and atheistic at heart. When Madame Blavatsky set out in search of hidden wisdom it was to the Moorish land of Egypt that she journeyed.

Blavatsky claimed to be a disciple of the Masters Morya and Koot Hoomi. The researcher K. Prominent among them Jamal ad-Din al-Afghani, a Sufi scholar, tireless political intriguer, and the leader of radical movements throughout the Muslim world, whose travels enigmatically paralleled those of Madame Blavatsky for more than thirty years.

The Hindu Kush range is in Afghanistan: geographically, it forms the Western extreme of the Himalayas. They do this, not as leaders or teachers of mankind, but unobtrusively by introducing certain ideas and techniques.

This intervention works in such a way as to rectify deviations from the predestined course of human history. This inner circle, it is claimed, concentrates its activities in those areas and at those times when the situation is critical for mankind.

His life is described as a mysterious odyssey that led through lands as far apart as India and America. Received by heads of state in Cairo and Istanbul, he moved in both underground radical circles and the highest centres of power in European and Oriental capitals.

The shrines of Sufi masters are centres of trance dancing, exorcism, and miraculous healings. The second line consisted of four Covenanter brigades, their "main battle", commanded by Lumsden.

There is confusion as to the disposition of the third line and of the infantry deployment on the right wing, as the only map Lumsden's is badly damaged.

Young placed the main body of Fairfax's foot on the left of the third line, although more recent interpretations of accounts put them on the right of the third line or even behind the cavalry of the right wing.

An unbrigaded Covenanter regiment may have formed an incomplete fourth line. He had at least 2, horse from Yorkshire and Lancashire, deployed in nine divisions, with musketeers posted between them in the same manner as on the left wing.

There were also perhaps dragoons. The second and third lines of the right wing may also have included some units of foot, whose identity is uncertain.

The Royalists occupied the low-lying moor, behind a drainage ditch that Rupert noted as an effective obstacle to a cavalry charge. There is some dispute over the course of the ditch at the time of the battle.

Some contemporary accounts support the contention by later historians that it was non-existent on the Royalists' right wing.

On the other hand, a near-contemporary plan of the Royalist dispositions by Rupert's chief engineer, Bernard de Gomme , shows the ditch in its present-day alignment.

The Royalist left wing was commanded by Lord Goring. It consisted of 1, cavalry from the Marquess of Newcastle's cavalry the "Northern Horse" , cavalry from Derbyshire and musketeers.

The first line was commanded by Goring and the second by Sir Charles Lucas. Their centre was commanded by Eythin.

A brigade numbering 1, and consisting of Rupert's and Byron's regiments of foot under Colonel Robert Napier of Byron's regiment [53] was deployed at the ditch, at the junction of the right wing and centre, possibly to protect some artillery which may have occupied a slight hummock near this point [54] or where the ditch was an especially weak obstacle.

Behind them, the first line and the left wing of the second line were composed of the remaining infantry units of Rupert's army, numbering 5,, under Rupert's Sergeant Major General, Henry Tillier.

The 3, infantry from Newcastle's army under Sergeant Major General Francis Mackworth formed the right wing of the second line and an incomplete third line behind the right centre when they arrived, though some at least of them may not have taken up their assigned positions when the battle began, leaving the right of the Royalist centre understrength.

A total of 14 field guns were deployed in the centre. The right wing was commanded by Byron, with 2, horse and musketeers. The second line, which included Rupert's Regiment of Horse but also some comparatively inexperienced regiments, was commanded by Lord Molyneux , although the experienced but unprincipled Sir John Urry or "Hurry" was Sergeant Major General of Rupert's horse and therefore Byron's second in command.

Unlike the Covenanters and Parliamentarians, Rupert retained a reserve of cavalry, including his elite Lifeguard of Horse, under his personal command.

This reserve was situated behind the centre. Delayed by the late arrival of the York garrison, it was late evening before the Royalists were fully deployed.

A flurry of rain showers and the discouragement of Newcastle and Eythin persuaded Rupert to delay his attack until the next day. From the ranks of the allied army he could hear the singing of psalms.

On the allied left, Crawford's infantry outflanked and drove back Napier's brigade while Cromwell's horse quickly defeated Byron's wing.

Though Byron had been ordered to stand his ground and rely on the ditch and musket fire to slow and disorganize an enemy attack, he instead ordered a hasty counter-charge which disordered his own troops and prevented his musketeers and four "drakes" field guns attached to Napier's brigade [57] from firing for fear of hitting their own cavalry.

Cromwell was slightly wounded in the neck, by a pistol ball in most accounts, and briefly left the field to have the wound dressed.

Noting the setback on this flank, Rupert led his reserve towards the right, rallying his own fleeing regiment of horse and leading them in a counter-attack.

Cromwell's own division had a hard pull of it; for they were charged by Rupert's bravest men both in front and flank; they stood at the sword's point a pretty while, hacking one another; but at last it so pleased God he [Cromwell] brake through them, scattering them before him like a little dust.

Leslie's Covenanter regiments eventually swung the balance for Cromwell, outflanking and defeating the Royalist cavalry.

On the allied right centre, the brigade of Fairfax's infantry and Baillie's "vanguard" initially succeeded in crossing the ditch, capturing at least three pieces of artillery.

On the allied right, Sir Thomas Fairfax's wing fared worse. He later wrote:. Our Right Wing had not, all, so good success, by reason of the whins and ditches which we were to pass over before we could get to the Enemy, which put us into great disorder: notwithstanding, I drew up a body of Horse.

But because the intervals of Horse, in this Wing only, were lined with Musketeers; which did us much hurt with their shot; I was necessitated to charge them.

We were a long time engaged with one another, but at last we routed that part of their Wing But that part of the Enemy which stood, perceiving the disorder they were in, had charged and routed them, before I could get to them.

Fairfax wrote that his second-in-command, Major-General Lambert, could not get up to him, and so charged in another place.

A lane, the present-day Atterwith Lane, crossed the ditch on this flank, and some accounts suggest that several units were easy targets for the Royalist musketeers as they advanced along the lane only four abreast.

When Goring launched a counter-charge, the disorganised Parliamentarians were routed, although some of the Covenanter cavalry regiments with Sir Thomas Fairfax's wing, especially the Earl of Eglinton's regiment, resisted stoutly for some time.

Most of Goring's victorious wing then either scattered in pursuit, or fell out to loot the allied baggage train, but some of them under Lucas wheeled to attack the right flank of the allied infantry.

Meanwhile, some of Newcastle's foot counter-attacked the brigade of Fairfax's foot in the centre of the allied front line and threw them into confusion.

Following up this advantage, Blakiston's brigade of horse, probably reinforced by the troop of "gentleman volunteers" under Newcastle himself, charged the allied centre.

Under Lucas's and Blakiston's assaults in the confusion and the gathering darkness, six of the Covenanter infantry regiments and all of Fairfax's infantry fled the field.

The Scottish sergeant major general, Lumsden, on the right of the allied second line, stated that:. These that ran away shew themselves most baselie.

One isolated Covenanter brigade of foot that stood its ground was at the right of their front line and consisted of the regiments of the Earl of Crawford-Lindsay and Viscount Maitland.

Lucas launched three cavalry charges against them. In the third charge, Lucas's horse was killed, and he was taken prisoner.

By now it was nearly fully dark, although the full moon was rising. The countryside for miles around was covered with fugitives from both sides.

A messenger from Ireland riding in search of Prince Rupert wrote:. In this horrible distraction did I coast the country; here meeting with a shoal of Scots crying out, 'Weys us, we are all undone'; and so full of lamentation and mourning, as if their day of doom had overtaken them, and from which they knew not whither to fly; and anon I met with a ragged troop reduced to four and a Cornet; by and by with a little foot officer without hat, band, sword, or indeed anything but feet and so much tongue as would serve to enquire the way to the next garrisons, which to say the truth were well filled with the stragglers on both sides within a few hours, though they lay distant from the place of the fight 20 or 30 miles.

Cromwell's disciplined horsemen had rallied behind the right of the original Royalist position. Sir Thomas Fairfax, finding himself alone in the midst of Goring's men, removed the " field sign " a handkerchief or slip of white paper which identified him as a Parliamentarian from his hat, and made his way to Cromwell's wing to relate the state of affairs on the allied right flank.

By this time, Goring's troops were tired and disorganised, and several of his senior officers were prisoners. Many of them retired to the "glen", the fold of ground beneath Marston Hill, but refused to take any further part in the battle despite the efforts of officers such as Sir Marmaduke Langdale and Sir Philip Monckton to rally them.

Eventually, they obeyed orders to retreat to York late at night. The triumphant allies meanwhile turned against the remains of the Royalist centre, overrunning successive units and cutting down many fugitives.

Finally some of Newcastle's foot, the "whitecoats", gathered for a last stand in a ditched enclosure. This has usually been stated to be White Sike Close, in the rear of the Royalists' original position, where some of Newcastle's infantry would have retreated when they found their right flank "in the air" following the defeat of Byron's and Rupert's cavalry, [67] and certainly where some mass burials later took place, although the enclosure may instead have been Fox Covert, a mile north of Long Marston on the natural line of retreat towards York.

The last 30 survivors finally surrendered. Approximately 4, Royalist soldiers had been killed, many in the last stand of the whitecoats, and 1, captured, including Lucas and Tillier.

The Royalists lost all their guns, with many hundreds of weapons and several standards also falling into the hands of the allied forces.

The allied generals' dispatch, and other Parliamentarian accounts, stated that of their soldiers were killed.

Cromwell was present when he died afterwards, and wrote a famous letter to the soldier's father, Cromwell's brother-in-law, also named Valentine Walton , which briefly described the battle and then informed the father of the son's last words and death.

Late at night, the Royalist generals reached York, with many routed troops and stragglers. The Governor of York, Sir Thomas Glemham , allowed only those who were part of the garrison in effect, only a few officers who had participated in the battle as volunteers into the city, in case Parliamentarian cavalry entered the city on the heels of the fleeing Royalists.

Many fugitives, including wounded, crowded the streets before Micklegate Bar , the western gate into the city.

Newcastle, having seen his forces broken and having spent his entire fortune in the Royalist cause, resolved that he would not endure the "laughter of the court".

He departed for Scarborough on the day after the battle 3 July and went into exile in Hamburg , with Eythin and many of his senior officers. He considered that rather than attempt to restore Royalist fortunes in the north, he was required to return south to rejoin the King.

Leaving York by way of Monk Bar on the north east side, he marched back over the Pennines, making a detour to Richmond to escape interception. At Marston Moor, Rupert had been decisively beaten for the first time in the war.

He was deeply affected by the defeat, and kept the King's ambiguous dispatch close to him for the remainder of his life. Parliamentarian propaganda made much of this, treating Boye almost as a Devil's familiar.

With the departure of Newcastle and Rupert, the Royalists effectively abandoned the north, except for isolated garrisons, which were reduced one by one over the next few months.

The remnants of Byron's troops were driven from Lancashire in August, and were involved in another Royalist disaster at the Relief of Montgomery Castle in Wales in September.

They relieved a Royalist garrison at Pontefract Castle in West Yorkshire in February , but their undisciplined and licentious conduct turned many former sympathisers away from the Royalist cause.

The victorious allies regrouped, although too slowly to intercept Rupert as he left York. Once the allied army had reformed and had been joined by Meldrum's and Denbigh's forces they resumed the siege of York.

Without hope of relief, and under the agreement that no Scottish soldiers were to be quartered in the city, the garrison surrendered on honourable terms on 16 July.

Once York surrendered, the allied army soon dispersed. Leven took his troops north to besiege Newcastle upon Tyne and Carlisle.

He sent dispatches to Scotland ordering that all runaways from the Covenanter regiments which broke at Marston Moor be returned, but not before every tenth deserter was hanged according to article 14 of Leven's Articles of War.

Once reunited with the Army of both Kingdoms, the remnants of the six broken regiments were put to base service such as latrine duties and the disposing of corpses until they got the chance to redeem themselves during the storm of Newcastle.

The Earl of Leven had again demonstrated the importance of disciplined infantry. Even as some of the newly levied allied regiments were routed by the Royalists, he had ensured he had enough veterans in reserve to replace them and overturn the early gains made by his opponents.

Despite attempts by his political rivals such as Denzil Holles and military critics such as Major General Lawrence Crawford to belittle the part he played, [87] it was acknowledged that the discipline he had instilled into his troops and his own leadership on the battlefield had been crucial to the victory.

Cromwell would later declare that Marston Moor was "an absolute victory obtained by God's blessing". However, the accounts published after the battle exacerbated the rifts which were already growing between the moderates and Presbyterians on the one hand and the Independents on the other.

We were both grieved and angry, that your Independents there should have sent up Major Harrison to trumpet over all the city their own praises, to our prejudice, making all believe, that Cromwell alone, with his unspeakable valorous regiments, had done all that service: that most of us fled: and who stayed they fought so and so, as it might be.

We were much vexed with these reports, against which yow were not pleased, any of yow to instruct us with any ansuer, till Lindesay's letters came at last, and captain Stewart with his collors.

Then we sent abroad our printed relations, and could lift up our face. But within three days Mr Ashe's relation was also printed, who gives us many good words, but gives much more to Cromwell than we are informed is his due … See by this inclosed, if the whole victorie both in the right and left wing, be not ascribed to Cromwell, and not a word of David Lesley, who in all places that day was his leader.

Much of the resulting many-sided dispute among the Parliamentarians and Covenanters was prompted by accounts very soon after the battle that all three allied generals-in-chief had fled the field.

The Earl of Manchester left the field but he subsequently rallied some infantry and returned, although he was able to exercise little control over events.

By some accounts, Lord Fairfax and Leven also fled the battlefield with their routed troops, but this has recently been challenged, certainly in Leven's case.

The most detailed account of Leven's flight was written by the biographer of Lieutenant Colonel James Somerville, who was present at the battle as a volunteer.

As seven different eyewitnesses attested, they did so under the direction of Leven. For example, Simeon Ashe the Earl of Manchester's chaplain noted that:.

The enigmatic English reporter,"T. The Lord of Hosts did so strike up the hearts of the three Noble Generals [that God] took boldness and courage unto them, gathering up those Horse Forces that were left into a body to assist those English and Scotts that stood to it, and set upon them, as David with his small Army upon the numerous company of the Amalekites, while they were rejoicing over their spoils, and smote them until the evening.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Scotland in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. Further information: Marston Moor order of battle.

Arthur Trevor to the Marquess of Ormonde. Young made the error of thinking the account was written by Somerville himself. Baillie, Robert Laing, D ed.

National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 17 February Carte, T. Collection of Letters. A History of the English-speaking Peoples.

The New World. London: Cassell. Coster, Will In Levene, Mark; Roberts, Penny eds. The Massacre in History. New York: Berghahn Books.

Retrieved 1 May Dodds, Glen Lyndon Battles in Britain, —

Some researchers believe this flag consisted of a red background with a green five-pointed star in the centre of it. The star or pentagram, which the Moors called the Seal of Sulaiyman and coloured green to honour Islam, also figures prominently in Masonic art and architecture.

The layout of the city of Washington D. When Freemasons travelling in the Moorish lands encountered Sufis, the mystics of Islam, they soon recognised a common bond.

Papus also viewed Freemasonry as a diabolical perversion of the ancient secret tradition and atheistic at heart. When Madame Blavatsky set out in search of hidden wisdom it was to the Moorish land of Egypt that she journeyed.

Blavatsky claimed to be a disciple of the Masters Morya and Koot Hoomi. The researcher K. Prominent among them Jamal ad-Din al-Afghani, a Sufi scholar, tireless political intriguer, and the leader of radical movements throughout the Muslim world, whose travels enigmatically paralleled those of Madame Blavatsky for more than thirty years.

The Hindu Kush range is in Afghanistan: geographically, it forms the Western extreme of the Himalayas. They do this, not as leaders or teachers of mankind, but unobtrusively by introducing certain ideas and techniques.

This intervention works in such a way as to rectify deviations from the predestined course of human history.

This inner circle, it is claimed, concentrates its activities in those areas and at those times when the situation is critical for mankind.

His life is described as a mysterious odyssey that led through lands as far apart as India and America. Received by heads of state in Cairo and Istanbul, he moved in both underground radical circles and the highest centres of power in European and Oriental capitals.

The shrines of Sufi masters are centres of trance dancing, exorcism, and miraculous healings. Sufi masters are also renowned for communicating with their followers through dreams.

Two Americans of African descent, who are rumoured to have studied under al-Afghani, were the parents of the man who would one day establish Moorish Science in the United States.

Noble Drew Ali born Timothy Drew early in the 20th century took a job as a merchant seaman and found himself in Egypt.

According to one legend, Noble Drew Ali made a pilgrimage to North Africa where he studied with Moorish scholars and received a mandate from the king of Morocco to instruct Americans of African descent in Islam.

His association with the ruler of Morocco is significant when we recall the historic relationship between this Moorish country and the early United States.

Noble Drew Ali is said to have made a historic visit to Washington, D. By the end of the s, membership in the Moorish Science Temple had grown substantially.

In several Moors, including Noble Drew Ali, where detained for questioning by the Chicago police. Released from custody, Noble Drew Ali fell ill and never recovered.

Many Moors suspected his death the result of a severe police beating. Much of the known history of Moorish Science in North America is extremely complex and obscure.

By the s some white American poets and jazz musicians came into contact with Moorish Science. Burroughs spending years living in the Moorish lands.

Joseph Matheny, the American author and media theorist, first encountered Moorish Science when he was researching time travel and quantum consciousness.

The speaker, a Moorish Sheik returned from a long sojourn in the East, claimed Freemasonry is built on a twisting of the truth of Moorish Science.

It is the secret power behind the West based on the Supreme Wisdom derived from esoteric Islam. The European colonisers usurped the knowledge of the Moors and created a nefarious system of control that blinds man to his true identity.

The Sheik also revealed how Afghanistan and Iraq figure in sacred geography and numerology, and mentioned a secret war between the Anglo-American and Asiatic powers.

Is there a struggle between occult brotherhoods to influence human destiny? Are the dramatic events taking place in the world, from the continuing strife in Palestine, Iraq and Afghanistan, to the rivalry between the forces of Atlanticism Britain and the USA and Eurasia Russia and China , just surface manifestations of a deeper conflict?

The second line consisted of four Covenanter brigades, their "main battle", commanded by Lumsden. There is confusion as to the disposition of the third line and of the infantry deployment on the right wing, as the only map Lumsden's is badly damaged.

Young placed the main body of Fairfax's foot on the left of the third line, although more recent interpretations of accounts put them on the right of the third line or even behind the cavalry of the right wing.

An unbrigaded Covenanter regiment may have formed an incomplete fourth line. He had at least 2, horse from Yorkshire and Lancashire, deployed in nine divisions, with musketeers posted between them in the same manner as on the left wing.

There were also perhaps dragoons. The second and third lines of the right wing may also have included some units of foot, whose identity is uncertain.

The Royalists occupied the low-lying moor, behind a drainage ditch that Rupert noted as an effective obstacle to a cavalry charge.

There is some dispute over the course of the ditch at the time of the battle. Some contemporary accounts support the contention by later historians that it was non-existent on the Royalists' right wing.

On the other hand, a near-contemporary plan of the Royalist dispositions by Rupert's chief engineer, Bernard de Gomme , shows the ditch in its present-day alignment.

The Royalist left wing was commanded by Lord Goring. It consisted of 1, cavalry from the Marquess of Newcastle's cavalry the "Northern Horse" , cavalry from Derbyshire and musketeers.

The first line was commanded by Goring and the second by Sir Charles Lucas. Their centre was commanded by Eythin.

A brigade numbering 1, and consisting of Rupert's and Byron's regiments of foot under Colonel Robert Napier of Byron's regiment [53] was deployed at the ditch, at the junction of the right wing and centre, possibly to protect some artillery which may have occupied a slight hummock near this point [54] or where the ditch was an especially weak obstacle.

Behind them, the first line and the left wing of the second line were composed of the remaining infantry units of Rupert's army, numbering 5,, under Rupert's Sergeant Major General, Henry Tillier.

The 3, infantry from Newcastle's army under Sergeant Major General Francis Mackworth formed the right wing of the second line and an incomplete third line behind the right centre when they arrived, though some at least of them may not have taken up their assigned positions when the battle began, leaving the right of the Royalist centre understrength.

A total of 14 field guns were deployed in the centre. The right wing was commanded by Byron, with 2, horse and musketeers. The second line, which included Rupert's Regiment of Horse but also some comparatively inexperienced regiments, was commanded by Lord Molyneux , although the experienced but unprincipled Sir John Urry or "Hurry" was Sergeant Major General of Rupert's horse and therefore Byron's second in command.

Unlike the Covenanters and Parliamentarians, Rupert retained a reserve of cavalry, including his elite Lifeguard of Horse, under his personal command.

This reserve was situated behind the centre. Delayed by the late arrival of the York garrison, it was late evening before the Royalists were fully deployed.

A flurry of rain showers and the discouragement of Newcastle and Eythin persuaded Rupert to delay his attack until the next day.

From the ranks of the allied army he could hear the singing of psalms. On the allied left, Crawford's infantry outflanked and drove back Napier's brigade while Cromwell's horse quickly defeated Byron's wing.

Though Byron had been ordered to stand his ground and rely on the ditch and musket fire to slow and disorganize an enemy attack, he instead ordered a hasty counter-charge which disordered his own troops and prevented his musketeers and four "drakes" field guns attached to Napier's brigade [57] from firing for fear of hitting their own cavalry.

Cromwell was slightly wounded in the neck, by a pistol ball in most accounts, and briefly left the field to have the wound dressed. Noting the setback on this flank, Rupert led his reserve towards the right, rallying his own fleeing regiment of horse and leading them in a counter-attack.

Cromwell's own division had a hard pull of it; for they were charged by Rupert's bravest men both in front and flank; they stood at the sword's point a pretty while, hacking one another; but at last it so pleased God he [Cromwell] brake through them, scattering them before him like a little dust.

Leslie's Covenanter regiments eventually swung the balance for Cromwell, outflanking and defeating the Royalist cavalry. On the allied right centre, the brigade of Fairfax's infantry and Baillie's "vanguard" initially succeeded in crossing the ditch, capturing at least three pieces of artillery.

On the allied right, Sir Thomas Fairfax's wing fared worse. He later wrote:. Our Right Wing had not, all, so good success, by reason of the whins and ditches which we were to pass over before we could get to the Enemy, which put us into great disorder: notwithstanding, I drew up a body of Horse.

But because the intervals of Horse, in this Wing only, were lined with Musketeers; which did us much hurt with their shot; I was necessitated to charge them.

We were a long time engaged with one another, but at last we routed that part of their Wing But that part of the Enemy which stood, perceiving the disorder they were in, had charged and routed them, before I could get to them.

Fairfax wrote that his second-in-command, Major-General Lambert, could not get up to him, and so charged in another place.

A lane, the present-day Atterwith Lane, crossed the ditch on this flank, and some accounts suggest that several units were easy targets for the Royalist musketeers as they advanced along the lane only four abreast.

When Goring launched a counter-charge, the disorganised Parliamentarians were routed, although some of the Covenanter cavalry regiments with Sir Thomas Fairfax's wing, especially the Earl of Eglinton's regiment, resisted stoutly for some time.

Most of Goring's victorious wing then either scattered in pursuit, or fell out to loot the allied baggage train, but some of them under Lucas wheeled to attack the right flank of the allied infantry.

Meanwhile, some of Newcastle's foot counter-attacked the brigade of Fairfax's foot in the centre of the allied front line and threw them into confusion.

Following up this advantage, Blakiston's brigade of horse, probably reinforced by the troop of "gentleman volunteers" under Newcastle himself, charged the allied centre.

Under Lucas's and Blakiston's assaults in the confusion and the gathering darkness, six of the Covenanter infantry regiments and all of Fairfax's infantry fled the field.

The Scottish sergeant major general, Lumsden, on the right of the allied second line, stated that:. These that ran away shew themselves most baselie.

One isolated Covenanter brigade of foot that stood its ground was at the right of their front line and consisted of the regiments of the Earl of Crawford-Lindsay and Viscount Maitland.

Lucas launched three cavalry charges against them. In the third charge, Lucas's horse was killed, and he was taken prisoner. By now it was nearly fully dark, although the full moon was rising.

The countryside for miles around was covered with fugitives from both sides. A messenger from Ireland riding in search of Prince Rupert wrote:. In this horrible distraction did I coast the country; here meeting with a shoal of Scots crying out, 'Weys us, we are all undone'; and so full of lamentation and mourning, as if their day of doom had overtaken them, and from which they knew not whither to fly; and anon I met with a ragged troop reduced to four and a Cornet; by and by with a little foot officer without hat, band, sword, or indeed anything but feet and so much tongue as would serve to enquire the way to the next garrisons, which to say the truth were well filled with the stragglers on both sides within a few hours, though they lay distant from the place of the fight 20 or 30 miles.

Cromwell's disciplined horsemen had rallied behind the right of the original Royalist position. Sir Thomas Fairfax, finding himself alone in the midst of Goring's men, removed the " field sign " a handkerchief or slip of white paper which identified him as a Parliamentarian from his hat, and made his way to Cromwell's wing to relate the state of affairs on the allied right flank.

By this time, Goring's troops were tired and disorganised, and several of his senior officers were prisoners.

Many of them retired to the "glen", the fold of ground beneath Marston Hill, but refused to take any further part in the battle despite the efforts of officers such as Sir Marmaduke Langdale and Sir Philip Monckton to rally them.

Eventually, they obeyed orders to retreat to York late at night. The triumphant allies meanwhile turned against the remains of the Royalist centre, overrunning successive units and cutting down many fugitives.

Finally some of Newcastle's foot, the "whitecoats", gathered for a last stand in a ditched enclosure. This has usually been stated to be White Sike Close, in the rear of the Royalists' original position, where some of Newcastle's infantry would have retreated when they found their right flank "in the air" following the defeat of Byron's and Rupert's cavalry, [67] and certainly where some mass burials later took place, although the enclosure may instead have been Fox Covert, a mile north of Long Marston on the natural line of retreat towards York.

The last 30 survivors finally surrendered. Approximately 4, Royalist soldiers had been killed, many in the last stand of the whitecoats, and 1, captured, including Lucas and Tillier.

The Royalists lost all their guns, with many hundreds of weapons and several standards also falling into the hands of the allied forces.

The allied generals' dispatch, and other Parliamentarian accounts, stated that of their soldiers were killed. Cromwell was present when he died afterwards, and wrote a famous letter to the soldier's father, Cromwell's brother-in-law, also named Valentine Walton , which briefly described the battle and then informed the father of the son's last words and death.

Late at night, the Royalist generals reached York, with many routed troops and stragglers. The Governor of York, Sir Thomas Glemham , allowed only those who were part of the garrison in effect, only a few officers who had participated in the battle as volunteers into the city, in case Parliamentarian cavalry entered the city on the heels of the fleeing Royalists.

Many fugitives, including wounded, crowded the streets before Micklegate Bar , the western gate into the city.

Newcastle, having seen his forces broken and having spent his entire fortune in the Royalist cause, resolved that he would not endure the "laughter of the court".

He departed for Scarborough on the day after the battle 3 July and went into exile in Hamburg , with Eythin and many of his senior officers.

He considered that rather than attempt to restore Royalist fortunes in the north, he was required to return south to rejoin the King.

Leaving York by way of Monk Bar on the north east side, he marched back over the Pennines, making a detour to Richmond to escape interception.

At Marston Moor, Rupert had been decisively beaten for the first time in the war. He was deeply affected by the defeat, and kept the King's ambiguous dispatch close to him for the remainder of his life.

Parliamentarian propaganda made much of this, treating Boye almost as a Devil's familiar. With the departure of Newcastle and Rupert, the Royalists effectively abandoned the north, except for isolated garrisons, which were reduced one by one over the next few months.

The remnants of Byron's troops were driven from Lancashire in August, and were involved in another Royalist disaster at the Relief of Montgomery Castle in Wales in September.

They relieved a Royalist garrison at Pontefract Castle in West Yorkshire in February , but their undisciplined and licentious conduct turned many former sympathisers away from the Royalist cause.

The victorious allies regrouped, although too slowly to intercept Rupert as he left York. Once the allied army had reformed and had been joined by Meldrum's and Denbigh's forces they resumed the siege of York.

Without hope of relief, and under the agreement that no Scottish soldiers were to be quartered in the city, the garrison surrendered on honourable terms on 16 July.

Once York surrendered, the allied army soon dispersed. Leven took his troops north to besiege Newcastle upon Tyne and Carlisle.

He sent dispatches to Scotland ordering that all runaways from the Covenanter regiments which broke at Marston Moor be returned, but not before every tenth deserter was hanged according to article 14 of Leven's Articles of War.

Once reunited with the Army of both Kingdoms, the remnants of the six broken regiments were put to base service such as latrine duties and the disposing of corpses until they got the chance to redeem themselves during the storm of Newcastle.

The Earl of Leven had again demonstrated the importance of disciplined infantry. Even as some of the newly levied allied regiments were routed by the Royalists, he had ensured he had enough veterans in reserve to replace them and overturn the early gains made by his opponents.

Despite attempts by his political rivals such as Denzil Holles and military critics such as Major General Lawrence Crawford to belittle the part he played, [87] it was acknowledged that the discipline he had instilled into his troops and his own leadership on the battlefield had been crucial to the victory.

Cromwell would later declare that Marston Moor was "an absolute victory obtained by God's blessing". However, the accounts published after the battle exacerbated the rifts which were already growing between the moderates and Presbyterians on the one hand and the Independents on the other.

We were both grieved and angry, that your Independents there should have sent up Major Harrison to trumpet over all the city their own praises, to our prejudice, making all believe, that Cromwell alone, with his unspeakable valorous regiments, had done all that service: that most of us fled: and who stayed they fought so and so, as it might be.

We were much vexed with these reports, against which yow were not pleased, any of yow to instruct us with any ansuer, till Lindesay's letters came at last, and captain Stewart with his collors.

Then we sent abroad our printed relations, and could lift up our face. But within three days Mr Ashe's relation was also printed, who gives us many good words, but gives much more to Cromwell than we are informed is his due … See by this inclosed, if the whole victorie both in the right and left wing, be not ascribed to Cromwell, and not a word of David Lesley, who in all places that day was his leader.

Much of the resulting many-sided dispute among the Parliamentarians and Covenanters was prompted by accounts very soon after the battle that all three allied generals-in-chief had fled the field.

The Earl of Manchester left the field but he subsequently rallied some infantry and returned, although he was able to exercise little control over events.

By some accounts, Lord Fairfax and Leven also fled the battlefield with their routed troops, but this has recently been challenged, certainly in Leven's case.

The most detailed account of Leven's flight was written by the biographer of Lieutenant Colonel James Somerville, who was present at the battle as a volunteer.

As seven different eyewitnesses attested, they did so under the direction of Leven. For example, Simeon Ashe the Earl of Manchester's chaplain noted that:.

The enigmatic English reporter,"T. The Lord of Hosts did so strike up the hearts of the three Noble Generals [that God] took boldness and courage unto them, gathering up those Horse Forces that were left into a body to assist those English and Scotts that stood to it, and set upon them, as David with his small Army upon the numerous company of the Amalekites, while they were rejoicing over their spoils, and smote them until the evening.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Scotland in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. Further information: Marston Moor order of battle.

Arthur Trevor to the Marquess of Ormonde. Young made the error of thinking the account was written by Somerville himself.

Baillie, Robert Laing, D ed. National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 17 February Carte, T. Collection of Letters. A History of the English-speaking Peoples.

The New World. London: Cassell. Coster, Will In Levene, Mark; Roberts, Penny eds. The Massacre in History. New York: Berghahn Books.

Retrieved 1 May Dodds, Glen Lyndon Battles in Britain, —

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